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Selected Unani Research Topics
From the MEDLINE Database


1,000th anniversary of the birth of Avicenna
Vakhidov VV. Khirurgiia (Mosk) 1980;:110-4
No abstract.

A new Snellen's visual acuity chart with 'Indian' numerals.
Al-Salem M.
Br J Ophthalmol 1987;:923-5

'Indian' numerals, which are popular among the Arab population, were used to devise a new Snellen's visual acuity chart. The new chart has the advantages of a reading chart. It keeps the patient's interest, does not miss alexic patients, and is quicker to perform. It is also devoid of the many disadvantages of a kinetic response chart (the capital E letter or Landolt's broken rings), especially that of the limited option of test objects.

A precedent for modern psychotherapeutic techniques: one thousand years ago.
Shafii M.
Am J Psychiatry 1972;:1581-4
No abstract.

A retrospective study of cataract among Arabs residing in Kuwait.
al Samarrai AR, Noor Sunba MS.
Dev Ophthalmol 1991;:46-8
No abstract.

Abu Ali ibn-Sina (Avicenna) - an outstanding physician and philosopher of the Middle Ages (on the millennium of his birth)
Chikin Sia.
Sov Med 1980;:119-21
No abstract.

Abu Ali Ibn-Sina (Avicenna) and his scientific and medical legacy
Pulatov AM.
Vrach Delo 1980;:1-6
No abstract.

Abu Ali Ibn-Sina (Avicenna) on leprosy
Abdullaev AKh, Sharafiddinov TA.
Vestn Dermatol Venerol 1981;:76-9
No abstract.

Abu Ali Ibn-Sina (Avicenna) on physical exercises and massage
Moshkov VA.
Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 1981;:66-7
No abstract.

Abu Ali Ibn-Sina (Avicenna), on the millennium of his birth
Pulatov AT.
Vestn Khir 1980;:142-6
No abstract.

Abu Ali Ibn-Sina and medical ethics
Nuralev Iun.
Klin Med (Mosk) 1980;:112-4
No abstract.

Abu Ali Ibn-Sina and pharmacology; on the millennium of the birth of Avicenna
Denisenko PP, Nuraliev Iun.
Farmakol Toksikol 1980;:753-4
No abstract.

Abu Ali Ibn-Sina and the importance of his scientific legacy in the history of obstetrics
Asimova MZ, Kuznetsov VK, Piotrovskii SM.
Feldsher Akush 1980;:59-61
No abstract.

African neurosurgery. 1: Historical outline
el Khamlichi A.
Neurochirurgie 1996;:312-20

This outline of the history of African Neurosurgery explains the role that North Africa has played in the Middle Ages in the development of Neurosurgery, the origins of the development of the latter in twentieth century, and the delay that African Neurosurgery still shows at the present time in the majority of African countries. On the papyrus of the pharaonic era, we have found the description of some neurosurgical procedures such as trephination and brain aspiration by a transphenoidal approach used before mummification. It is particularly trephination which summarizes the ancient history of African neurosurgery, as it was widely used throughout the continent, practised and taught by healers in African tribes. The technical concepts of trephination are based, to a great extent, on the descriptions of Arab physicians of the Middle Ages. It was at that time (Middle Ages) that several Arab physicians such as Avicenne, Rhazes, and Avenzhoer described many types of nervous system diseases and the techniques to treat them. But it was mainly Abulkassim Al Zahraoui (Abulkassis) who was the pioneer of neurosurgery as he devoted one volume of his treatise (made up of 30 volumes) to neurosurgery, a precise description of many aspects of neurosurgical pathology, its treatment, instruments and neurosurgical techniques. We have reported in this article five original extracts in Arabic which deal with skull fractures and their treatment, vertebro- medullary traumas and their treatment, hydrocephalus and its treatment, tumors of the skull vault and their treatment, and finally the basic knowledge of anatomy which is of great interest for a surgeon. The medical knowledge of that time which gave birth to medical schools and hospitals was transmitted progressively to Europe and played an important role in the development of medicine during the European Renaissance in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. During colonization, neurosurgical practice started and developed in many African countries, together with the development of the health system that the colonial forces initiated in general as soon as they had come to these countries. This neurosurgery practised in the departments of general surgery either by neurosurgeons or general surgeons took part in the birth and development of neurosurgery as an independent specialty, thanks to the combined efforts of some European and African pioneers. Modern neurosurgery was introduced and started to develop in African countries from 1960, and the teaching of this specialty in many African universities began between 1960 and 1970.

African neurosurgery. 2: Current status and future prospects
el Khamlichi A.
Neurochirurgie 1996;:321-6

A survey conducted among African neurosurgeons shows that there are nowadays 500 neurosurgeons in Africa, that is one neurosurgeon for 1,350,000 inhabitants, and 70,000 km2. The distribution of these neurosurgeons shows a striking regional disparity: North Africa has 354 neurosurgeons for 119 million inhabitants, that is one neurosurgeon for 338,000 inhabitants, and South Africa has 65 neurosurgeons for 40 million inhabitants, that is one neurosurgeon for 620,000 inhabitants. Between these two areas where neurosurgery is developing quite well, we have the majority of African countries with a scanty density of neurosurgeons (81 neurosurgeons for 515 million inhabitants, that is one neurosurgeon for 6,368,000 inhabitants). The Panafrican Association of Neurological Sciences "PAANS" brings together the African neurosurgeons. This continental African Association represents African neurosurgeons in the WFNS. In addition to this continental Association, there are national societies of neurosciences. However, there are only six Societies of Neurosurgery. Two systems of training exist in Africa: local training and training abroad. These two systems have unequal quality and specific difficulties which have already been pointed out. Among the optimistic elements which make us believe in the development of neurosurgery in Africa are the existence of a quite good level of neurosurgery at the two extremities of the continent (North Africa and South Africa), the development of neurosciences in the African universities, and the increasing interest that the international community bears to Africa in the last years. However, the real factor of optimism is the African neurosurgeons who should promote neurosurgery in their continent, at the level of their own countries by developing information and health education, setting their specialty in the education syllabus and health planning, and settling into active and performing societies. At the continental and international level, African neurosurgeons should institutionalize inter-African cooperation, expedite their continental association (PAANS), and further exchanges with the other continents through the SNCLF (Société de Neurochirurgie de Langue Francaise). The latter, together with other associations such as the EANS (European Association of Neurosurgical Societies) and WFNS (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies) could provide help to the development of Neurosurgery in Africa as far as training, exchanges, research and organization are concerned.

Allergic contact dermatitis from black cumin (Nigella sativa) oil after topical use.
Steinmann A, Schätzle M, Agathos M, Breit R.
Contact Dermatitis 1997;:268-9
No abstract.

An Avicenna volume in the Helikon Library of Keszthely. Venetian publication, 1564
Tóth A.
Orv Hetil 1980;:3212-3
No abstract.

An Eastern genius. Remembering Avicenna on the 1000th anniversary of his birth
Egri B.
Orv Hetil 1980;:3207-12
No abstract.

Anesthesia in the works of Avicenna and anesthetic technics during the 11th century
Hijazi AR.
Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 1984;:76-8

Many works concerning 19th century anaesthesia have been written. Those concerning the Middle Ages were virtually non-existent. Paragraphs were found scattered in various chapters of 10th and 11th century medical and surgical works dealing with the anaesthetic techniques required by the importance of the surgical operations carried out at the time, such as above- or through-knee amputations. Avicenna, an 11th century Arab doctor, has written several medical works. The most famous one, the Canon, did play an important part in medical teaching of the Middle Ages. This book included about forty plants considered to have anaesthetic properties; a detailed description of the preparation of drugs from these plants and of way in which these drugs were used was given. It seemed the dangers of these drugs were known. Examples from this book made it possible to understand better the anaesthetic practice of the time, so giving a general idea of anaesthesia in the Middle Ages.

Antimicrobial & anthelmintic activities of the essential oil of Nigella sativa Linn.
Agarwal R, Kharya MD, Shrivastava R.
Indian J Exp Biol 1979;:1264-5
No abstract.

Antitumor principles from Nigella sativa seeds.
Salomi NJ, Nair SC, Jayawardhanan KK, Varghese CD, Panikkar KR.
Cancer Lett 1992;:41-6

The active principle of Nigella sativa seeds containing certain fatty acids was studied for antitumor activities against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC), Dalton's lymphopenia ascites (DLA) and Sarcoma-180 (S-180) cells. In vitro cytotoxic studies showed 50% cytotoxicity to Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, Dalton's Lymphoma ascites and Sarcoma-180 cells at a concentration of 1.5 micrograms, 3 micrograms and 1.5 micrograms respectively with little activity against lymphocytes. The cell growth of KB cells in culture was inhibited by the active principle while K-562 cells resumed near control values on day 2 and day 3. Tritiated thymidine incorporation studies indicated the possible action of an active principle at DNA level. In vivo EAC tumour development was completely inhibited by the active principle at the dose of 2 mg/mouse per day x 10.

Arabic medicinal measurements and weights in Latin translations of Arabic medical literature
Fellmann I.
Sudhoffs Arch Z Wissenschaftsgesch 1985;:228-31
No abstract.

Arabic medicine and nephrology
Eknoyan G.
Am J Nephrol 1994;:270-8

During the Dark Ages following the fall of the Roman Empire, the Arabic world was instrumental in fostering the development of the sciences, including medicine. The quest for original manuscripts and their translation into Arabic reached its climax in the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, and the dissemination of the compiled texts was facilitated by the introduction of paper from the East. Foremost among the Arabic physicians were Rhazes, Avicenna, Haly Abbas and Albucasis, who lived during the period 950-1050 AD. Their writings not only followed Hippocrates and Galen, but also greatly extended the analytical approach of these earlier writers. The urine was studied and the function and diseases of the kidneys described. Despite the fact that experimentation on the human body was prohibited by religion, some anatomic dissection and observation seems to have been undertaken, and the pulmonary circulation was described by Ibn Nafis. Anatomic illustrations began to appear in Arabic texts, though they did not have the detail and artistic merit of those of Vesalius.

Avicenna (980-1037)
Javadpour N.
Invest Urol 1968;:334-5
No abstract.

Avicenna (Abu Ali Ibn Sina) - his life and medical activities
Kucharz E.
Wiad Lek 1981;:1405-9
No abstract.

Avicenna (AD 980-1037) and Arabic perinatal medicine.
Dunn PM.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1997;:F75-6
No abstract.

Avicenna and his regimen of old age.
Howell TH.
Age Ageing 1987;:58-9
No abstract.

Avicenna and the Canon of Medicine: a millennial tribute.
Smith RD.
West J Med 1980;:367-70
No abstract.

Avicenna and the care of the aged.
Howell TH.
Gerontologist 1972;:424-6
No abstract.

Avicenna and the correction of gibbosity in the 1th century
Grasso S.
Orizz Ortop Odie Riabil 1967;:173-7
No abstract.

Avicenna and the roots of psychosomatic medicine
Schultheisz E.
Orv Hetil 1980;:3171-3
No abstract.

Avicenna on food aversions and dietary prescriptions.
Cohen SG.
Allergy Proc 1992;:199-203
No abstract.

Avicenna on the location of houses.
Jarcho S.
Bull N Y Acad Med 1967;:250-1
No abstract.

Avicenna on the musculoskeletal system
Usmanova RA.
Arkh Anat Gistol Embriol 1980;:112-4

A great scientist encyclopaedist of the Middle ages Abu Ali Ibn Sina (Avicenna) in his brilliant work "Cannon of medical science" systematized and interpreted the achievements of medical sciences, made his contribution into medical theory and practice. If we take together all the data on bones and muscles presented by him in his "Cannon of medical science" and arrange them in the sequence they are given in the body, a graceful systematized table of scientific knowledge on bones and muscles--a prototype of future osteology and myology will be obtained. In the "Canon of medical science" sources of the functional trend in morphology are laid: structure of the osseous and muscular systems is closely connected with the practical medicine. In his work Ibn Sina gives a correct and precise description of anatomical structure of the osseous system and bone functions, and the muscular system, in particular. A thorough study of the "Canon of medical science" clearly demonstrates that Ibn Sina made a great contribution, for his time, into the development of anatomy, not only successfully followed his predecessors, but greatly extended their scientific researches and corrected their errors.

Avicenna or Ibn Sina (980-1036 AD).

Has LF.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1991;:682
No abstract.

Avicenna the psychosomaticist
Ammar S.
Tunis Med 1980;:552-3
No abstract.

Avicenna's contribution to medicine
Ammar S.
Tunis Med 1980;:548-51
No abstract.

Avicenna's maxims and quotations
Ammar S.
Tunis Med 1980;:554-5
No abstract.

Avicenna's recipe for contraception.
Nathan B, Mikhail M.
Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1991;:1303
No abstract.

Avicenna's view on cancer from his Canon.
Eltorai I.
Am J Chin Med 1979;:276-84

Avicenna's views on cancer are presented from his Medical Canon. A literal translation from Arabic has been undertaken by the author. The clinical diagnosis, the prognosis as well as the therapeutic measures according to Avicenna are interesting to know and compare with our views one thousand years later.

Avicenna's writings
Ammar S.
Tunis Med 1980;:543
No abstract.

Avicenna, a forerunner of hygiene and preventive medicine
Polizzi F.
Ann Ig 1994;:357-64
No abstract.

Avicenna, physician and philosopher
Benziane K.
Rev Prat 1995;:2002-6
No abstract.

Avicenna, problem solving, and creativity during sleep
Schneck JM.
N Y State J Med 1990;:378
No abstract.

Avicenna, the prestigious scholar of the Islamic World
Aboussouan C.
Chir Dent Fr 1970;:50
No abstract.

Avicenna, the prince of physicians. II.
Clements RD.
Minn Med 1966;:187-92
No abstract.

Avicenna--a great physician and thinker
Masi, Ridanovi.
Med Arh 1993;:43-6

AVICENNA (980-1037), whose full name was Abu Ali al-Husayn ibn Abd-Allah ibn Sina, was the most renowned and influential medical man and philosopher of the medieval Islam. Over a three hundred of Avicenna's works have survived, ranging from encyclopedic treatments to short treatises and covering apart from medicine, philosophy and science, religious, linguistic, and literary matters. He wrote some works in Persian, of which the Danishnama-al 'Ala'i ("The Book of Science Dedicated to Ala's Dawla") is the most important. Most of his works, however, are in Arabic. His chief medical work is Al-Qanun fi't-tibb ("The Canon of Medicine"), a synthesis of Greek and Arabic medicine also includes his own clinical observations and views on scientific method. The most detailed philosophical work is the voluminous al-Shifa' ("The Healing"). Al-Najat ("The Deliverance") is largely a summary of al-Shifa', although there are some deviations. Al-Isharat wa al-Tanbihat ("The Directives and Remarks") gives the quintessence of Avicenna's philosophy, sometimes in an aphoristic style, and concludes with an expression of his mystical esoteric views, a part that relates to certain symbolic narratives which he also wrote.

Avicenna--physician-encyclopaedist and certain principles of his teachings concerning health and disease (on the 1000th anniversary of his birth)

Arzumetov IuS.
Fiziol Zh SSSR 1980;:1273-7
No abstract.

Shub MB.
S Afr Med J 1972;:675-6
No abstract.

Avicenna: the Master par excellence
Ammar S.
Tunis Med 1980;:544-7
No abstract.

Cardiological legacy of Abu Ali Ibn-Sina (on the millennium of his birth)
Katsenovich RA, Mirzaev NL.
Kardiologiia 1980 Nov; 20(1;:120-2
No abstract.

Commonly used Indian abortifacient plants with special reference to their teratologic effects in rats.
Nath D, Sethi N, Singh RK, Jain AK.
J Ethnopharmacol 1992;:147-54

A survey programme was organised in Lucknow and Farrukhabad, two towns of Uttar Pradesh, from March 1987 to July 1987. During the survey, the common folk medicine plants used by women were recorded and Ayurvedic and Unani drug encyclopedias were consulted for the anti-reproductive potential of these plants. Aqueous or 90% ethanol extracts of the plants of interest were studied in rats orally dosed for 10 days after insemination with special reference to effects on foetal development. Leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera and Adhatoda vasica were 100% abortive at doses equivalent to 175 mg/kg of starting dry material. Only the flowers of Acacia arabica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis appeared to lack teratologic potential at the doses tested.

Concrete and abstract in medicine: the case of Ibn Sina.
de Vries A.
Isr J Med Sci 1992;:813-8
No abstract.

Contribution of Abu Ali ibn Sina to dermato-venereology
Belova LV, Mirakhmedov UM.
Vestn Dermatol Venerol 1983;:60-4
No abstract.

Contribution of Avicenna to cosmetology
Belova LV.
Sov Zdravookhr 1984;:53-6
No abstract.

Contribution of Persian physicians to the development of Islamic medicine
Kalhor R.
Med Arh 1997;:9-12

In this article We have tried to reconsider the chronological appearance and influence of Iranian physicians during periods before and after appearance of Islam until the penetration of contemporary medicine in Iran, i.e. up to 19th century AD. The priority has been put to mention names of scientists as well as their works and new thoughts, to expose, without exclusivity and national attitudes, part of efforts of Iranian scientists in medical field. My main goal and intention was: first-to correct mistakes undertaken by some scientists who had seen books written in arabic language and so considered those scientific works as a part of arabic-Islamic heritage, and second-to introduce and present Iranian medical heritage of middle ages while Europe was in neglected dreams.

Dava, Daktar, and Dua: anthropology of practiced medicine in India.
Khare RS.
Soc Sci Med 1996;:837-48

The paper explicates "practiced medicine" as an operative cross-cultural analytic concept by locating it within previous major developments and directions of study within anthropological studies of medicine in India, and medical anthropology more generally. Practiced medicine in India, for example, allows us to see better how India manages not only multiple traditional and modern medical approaches, languages, therapeutic regimens, and Materia Medica, but it also leads us to a sustained moral, social and material criticism from within. The study of such diversity leads to a loosely shared, and ethnographically attestable, cultural reasoning, practice and practical ethos across the traditional and modern medical worlds. Also appearing before us are the usually hidden cultural assumptions, negotiations and compromises of diverse Indian medical practitioners, and the strengths and weaknesses of modern medicine under "normal" and "disastrous" situations in contemporary India. As India today grapples with issues of availability, affordability, equity, and distributive justice in medical care, its practiced medicine raises issues of "critical consciousness" for modern (and traditional) , state supported medicine.

Diagnosis and treatment of lovesickness: an Islamic medieval case study.
Hajal F.
Hosp Community Psychiatry 1994;:647-50
No abstract.

Diagnosis in the system of medical views of Ibn Sina
Petrov BD.
Klin Med (Mosk) 1979;:91-6
No abstract.

Digestive physiology in the works of Avicenna
Usmanova RA.
Fiziol Zh SSSR 1980;:1424-8
No abstract.

Effect of Cuscuta chinensis water extract on 7,12-dimethylbenz
Nisa M, Akbar S, Tariq M, Hussain Z.
J Ethnopharmacol 1986 Oct; 18(1;:21-31

Cuscuta chinensis, known as Aftimun, is reputed to have antitumor activity in the Unani system of medicine in India. The effect of a hot water extract of C. chinensis on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced skin papillomas and carcinomas in Swiss albino mice was studied. Oral administration of the extract (1 g/kg body wt) thrice a week in 22 mice, started on the tenth day after the first application of DMBA to the 252nd day, markedly delayed the appearance and retarded the growth of papillomas and the incidence of carcinoma, relative to a control group with 28 mice, in a two-stage system of tumorigenesis. Its prophylactic effect was found to be statistically significant.

Effectiveness of a Unani therapy (sangesarmahi) in management of urinary stone disease.
Ahmed A, Pendse AK, Surana SS, Singh PP, Sharma PN.
Indian J Exp Biol 1993;:260-4

A Unani medicine called fish stones, an isolate from the skull of Channa sp. when given to stone bearing patient daily in 3 equally divided doses (25 mg/capsule) for 5 days, spontaneously voided the stone in 36% of the stone patients during 5 days of therapy. The therapy did not influence the urinary chemistry and was not a powerful expulsion agent of stone but did effect on ureteric muscles to facilitate the movement of stone down the urinary tract. In guinea pigs, the therapy could not reduce the intensity of experimentally induced hyperoxaluria but showed several other beneficial effects. It decreased urinary uric acid and mucoprotein levels, serum LDH and ALT level; prevented rise in liver LDH and GAO activities and kidney-LDH activity. Histological examination revealed decreased intensity of calcification in liver, kidney and bladder tissues.

Effects of the volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds on the uterine smooth muscle of rat and guinea pig.
Aqel M, Shaheen R.
J Ethnopharmacol 1996;:23-6

The effects of the volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds on the uterine smooth muscle of rats and guinea pigs was tested in vitro using isolated uterine horns. The volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds inhibited the spontaneous movements of rat and guinea pig uterine smooth muscle and also the contractions induced by oxytocin stimulation. These effects were concentration-dependent and reversible by tissue washing. These data suggest that this volatile oil may have some anti-oxytocic potential.

Electro-acupuncture in the treatment of enuresis nocturna.
Tüzüner F, Keçik Y, Ozdemir S, Canakçi N.
Acupunct Electrother Res 1989;:211-5

In the present survey, 162 subjects with enuresis nocturna were given electro-acupuncture therapy. Specially chosen points were inserted once a day throughout a ten day period. After the therapy term, the success rate was evaluated as 98.2%.

Eponyms and epilepsy (history of Eastern civilizations)
Jankovic SM, Sokic DV, Levic ZM, Susic V, Drulovic J, Stojsavljevic N, Veskov R, Ivanus J.
Srp Arh Celok Lek 1996;:217-21

The history of eponyms for epilepsy in the lands of the Eastern globe present the portrait of the attitudes of both the laymen and skilled people towards the disease and patient, as well as to the Nature itself. As opposed to the West which during the Middle ages changed its concepts of epilepsy as the organic brain disease for the sublime 'alchemic' position, the people of the East were more prone to consider from the beginning of their civilization till the XIX century that epilepsy is the consequence of the evanescent spiritual and extracorporal forces which by themselves were out of their reach. As compared to the western civilization, the historical resources are, often as a consequence of a linguistic barriers, more scarce- as consequently is the number of eponyms, but are nevertheless picturesque.

Islamic medicine should be freed from the simple prejudice that the Moslem authors were only the translators of Greek medicine; contrary to such a view, their work contains a high degree of individuality. Although Mohammed introduced a lot of novelty into medicine, Koran and the Sayings do not explicitly refer to epilepsy. Of importance is to notice that Moslem medicine did not have demons in the "repertoire" of direct causes of epilepsy. The causes and the cures of epilepsy were more magic-mystical and occult in nature, which is reminiscent of the European, as well as Serbian Middle age attitudes. Avicenna recognized difference between children and adult epilepsy. He considered insomnia and afternoon siesta as well as intensive sounds and light to be a provocative factors, whereby we see that at least empirically he knew of sleep (deprivation), startle and reflex epilepsy. The XIII century invasion of Mongols brought about the recession in Moslem Medicine; it recovered only in the XVIII century under the strong influence of European medicine handed over to us through Jewish doctors of various nationalities.

Ethical principles of Abu Ali Ibn-Sina (Avicenna) and the problems of modern deontology (on the millennium of his birth)
Mukhitdinov BN.
Vestn Rentgenol Radiol 1980;:80-2
No abstract.

Facial paralysis as described by Avicenna
Kataye S.
Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac 1975;:79-82
No abstract.

Field trial of Saussurea lappa roots against nematodes and Nigella sativa seeds against cestodes in children.
Akhtar MS, Riffat S.
JPMA J Pak Med Assoc 1991;:185-7

Antinematodal efficacy of Saussurea lappa roots (Qust-e- Shereen) and anticestodal effect of Nigella sativa seeds (Kalonji) was studied in children infected naturally with the respective worms. The activities were judged on the basis of percentage reductions in the faecal eggs per gram (EPG) counts. The 50 mg/kg single dose of S. lappa and equivalent amount of its methanolic extract produced on days 7 and 15 percentage EPG reduction similar to 10 mg/ kg of pyrantel pamoate. Similarly, single oral administration of 40 mg/kg of N. sativa, equivalent amount of its ethanolic extract and 50 mg/kg of niclosamide reduced the percentage of EPG counts not significantly different from each other on the days 7 and 15. Therefore, it is conceivable that these indigenous medicinal plants contain active principles effective against nematodes and cestodes. The crude drugs did not produce any adverse side effects in the doses tested.

Fixed oil of Nigella sativa and derived thymoquinone inhibit eicosanoid generation in leukocytes and membrane lipid peroxidation.
Houghton PJ, Zarka R, de las Heras B, Hoult JR.
Planta Med 1995;:33-6

Samples of the expressed fixed oil from different sources of Nigella sativa seeds were examined by thin-layer and gas chromatography for content of fixed oils and thymoquinone, and these substances were tested as possible inhibitors of eicosanoid generation and membrane lipid peroxidation. The crude fixed oil and pure thymoquinone both inhibited the cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase pathways of arachidonate metabolism in rat peritoneal leukocytes stimulated with calcium ionophore A23187, as shown by dose-dependent inhibition of thromboxane B2 and leukotriene B4, respectively. Thymoquinone was very potent, with approximate IC50 values against 5- lipoxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase of < 1 microgram/ml and 3.5 micrograms/ml, respectively. Both substances also inhibited non-enzymatic peroxidation in ox brain phospholipid liposomes, but thymoquinone was about ten times more potent. However, the inhibition of eicosanoid generation and lipid peroxidation by the fixed oil of N. sativa is greater than is expected from its content of thymoquinone (ca. 0.2% w/v), and it is possible that other components such as the unusual C20: 2 unsaturated fatty acids may contribute also to its anti- eicosanoid and antioxidant activity. These pharmacological properties of the oil support the traditional use of N. sativa and its derived products as a treatment for rheumatism and related inflammatory diseases.

From Avicenna to family practice
Hetland T.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 1997;:86-7
No abstract.

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